Learning Styles: From History to Future Reasearch Implications for Distance Learning
ResumoThe literature on learning styles offers a wide and confusing array of concepts. Despite that, experimental studies confirm their influence on learners’ attitudes, values, degree of social interaction, and way of processing information, affecting academic performance. In consequence, learning styles research has, increasingly, been used as the theoretical foundation for the development of learning materials and Distance Learning Environments. The field, however, would benefit from both the systematization of the concepts available, and from their further investigation, since, from the plethora of models available for categorizing learning styles, only a few have been well validated. This paper reviews the literature on learning styles, systematizing the findings, pointing at the major unsolved problems and giving suggestions for future research.
BEISHUIZEN, J., & STOUTJESDIJK, E. (1999). “Study strategies in a computer assisted study environment”. Learning and Instruction, 9(3), pp.281-301.
BONHAM, L. (1988) “Learning style use: In need of perspective”. Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research, 11(5), pp.14-17, 19.
BUTLER, K. (Ed.) (1988) Learning and teaching styles: theory and practice. Columbia, CT: Learner’s Dimension.
CURRY, L. (1987) Integrating concepts of cognitive or learning style: A review with attention to psychometric standards. Ottawa: Canadian College of Health Service Executives.
CURRY, L. (1991) “Patterns of learning styles across selected medical specialties”. Educational Psychology, 11, 247-278.
DIAZ, D. & CARTNAL,R. (1999) Students' learning styles in two classes: Online distance learning and equivalent on-campus. College Teaching 47(4), 130-135.
DORWICK, K. (2004) A Brief introduction to learning styles. University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA. Available on the Internet: http://www.uic.edu/depts/oaa/spec_prog/iss/ls/ls.pdf/.
DUNN, R. (1990) “Understanding the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model and the need for individual diagnosis and prescription”. Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities, 6, 223-247, 1990.
DUNN, R. (1993) “Teaching Gifted Adolescents through their learning style strengths”. In R. Dunn (Eds.) Teaching and Couseling Gifted and Talented Adolescents (pp.37-67) Westport, CT: Praeger.
DUNN, R., GRIGGS, S., OLSON, J., GORMAN, B, & BEASLY, M. (1995). “A meta analytic validation of the Dunn and Dunn learning styles model”. Journal of Educational Research, 88(6), 351-66.
FELDER, R. & HENRIQUES, E. (1995) Learning and teaching styles in foreign and second language education. In Foreign Language Annals, 28, No. 1, 1995, pp.21-31, North Carolina, USA. Available on the Internet: http://www.ncsu.edu/felderpublic/Papers/FLAnnals.pdf/.
FELDER, R. & SILVERMAN, L.. (1988) "Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education," Engineering Education, 78(7), 674. The original paper that defined the F-S learning style model.
FLEMING, N. (Ed.) (1995a) VARK – A resource pack for students and teachers. Lincoln University, New Zeeland.
FLEMING, N. (1995b) VARK – I’m different; not dumb: modes of presentation (VARK) in the tertiary classroom. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia, Rockhampton, Australia.
GODLESKI, E. (1984) “Learning style compatibility of engineering students and faculty”. Proceedings, Annual Frontiers in Education Conference. ASEE/IEEE, Philadelphia, USA, 362.
GRASHA, A. (1990). “Using traditional versus naturalistic approaches to assessing learning styles in college teaching”. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 1, 23-38.
GREGORC, A. (1982) Gregorc Style Delineator. Columbia, CT: Gregorc Associates, Inc.
GREGORC, A. (1985a) Inside styles, beyond the basics. Columbia, CT: Gregorc Associates.
GREGORC, A. (1985b) An Adult’s Guide to Style. Maynard, M.E: n.p.
GUILD, P.; GARGER, S. (1998) Marching to different drummers. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Deve, 2nd edition, Alexandria, VA, November 25.
JENSEN, E. (1998) Introduction to brain compatible learning. Del Mar, CA: Turning Point.
JONASSEN, D. & GRABOWSKI, B. (1993) Handbook of individual differences, learning and instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlaum Associates.
KAVALE, K. & FORNESS, S. (1987) “Style over substance: Assessing the effectiveness of modality testing and teaching”. Exceptional Children, 54, pp. 228-239.
KEEFE, J. (1979) Student learning styles. Reston, VA, USA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
KEMP, J. E., MORRISON, G. R., & ROSS, S. M. (1998) Designing effective instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2nd ed.
KOLB, D. (1984) Experimental Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
LEAVER, B. (1997) Teaching the whole class. Dubuque, Iowa, USA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.
MANNER, B. (2001) “Learning styles and multiple intelligences in students”. Journal of College Science Teaching (March-April), 30(6), pp. 390-394.
McLOUGHLIN, C. (1999) “The Implications of the research literature on learning styles for the design of instructional material”. Australian Journal of Educational Technology.
Australia, 15(3), 222-241. Available on the Internet: http://cleo.murdoch.edu.au/ajet/ajet15/mcloughlin.html/.
MESSICK, S. (1984). “The nature of cognitive styles: Problems and promise in educational practice”. Educational Psychologists, 19, pp59-74.
MESSICK, S. (1994). “The matter of style: Manifestations of personality in cognition, learning, and teaching”. Educational Psychologist, 29, 121-136.
MYERS, I. B. & BRIGGS, K. (1976) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
OXFORD, R. (1990) Language learning strategies: What every foreign language teacher should know. New York, USA: HarperCollins.
OXFORD, R., EHRMAN, M. & LAVINE, R. (1991) “Style Wars: teacher-student style conflicts in the language classroom”. In S. Magnan (Ed.), Challenges in the 1990’s for College Foreign Language Programs. Boston, USA: Heinle and Heinle.
PIOMBO, C., BATATIA, H. & AYACHE, A. (2003) A Framework for adapting instruction to cognitive learning styles. The 3rd IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT’03). Available on the Internet: http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/icalt/2003/1967/00/1967043 4.pdf/.
PINTO, J. (1992) Psicologia da Aprendizagem. Concepções, Teorias e Processos. Lisboa, Portugal: Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional.
POULISSE, N., (1989). The Use of Compensatory Strategies by Dutch Learners of English, Mouton de Gruijter, Berlin.
POULISSE, N., BONGAERTS, T. & KELLERMAN, E. (1984). “On the use of compensatory strategies in second language performance”. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin 8: 70-105.
PRESSLEY, M. WOLOSHYN, V. LYSYNCHUK, L. MARTIN V., WOOD. E. &
WILLOUGHBY, T. (1990) “A primer of research on cognitive strategy instruction: The important issues and how to address them”. Educational Psychology Review, 2, 1-58.
RASMUSSEN, K. (1998) “Hypermedia and learning styles: can performance be influenced? “ Journal of Multimedia and Hypermedia. 7(4), 291-308.
RAYNER, S. & RIDING, R. (1997) “Towards the categorization of cognitive styles and learning styles”. Educational Psychology, 17(1/2), 5-29.
RICHARDSON, J. (1994). “Cultural specificity of approaches to studying in higher education”. Higher Education, 27, 449-468.
RIDING, R. & CHEEMA, I. (1991) “Cognitive styles: an overview and integration”. Educational Psychology, 11(3&4), 193-215.
RINDING, R. & GRIMLEY, M. (1999) “Cognitive style and learning from multimedia materials in 11-year children”. British Journal of Educational Technology. England, 30(1), 43-59.
RUMETSHOFER, H.; WÖß, W. (2003) An approach for adaptable learning systems with respect to psychological aspects. 2003 ACM 1-58113-624-2/03/03.
SCHMECK, R. (1988) Learning strategies and learning styles. New York, USA: Plenum Press.
SCHUNK, D. (2004) Learning theories (4th edition). New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education Inc.
SILVER, H., STRONG, R., & PERINI, M. (1997) Teaching for Multiple Intelligences: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Educational Leadership, Volume 55, Number 1, September.
SOUSA, D. (1995) How the brain learns. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
SOUSA, D. (1997) How the brain learns. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
SOUSA, D. (1999) How the brain learns: new insights into the teaching/learning process. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
STELLWAGEN, J. (2001) A challenge to the learning style advocates. Clearing House, 74(5), pp. 265-269, May/June.
STERNBERG, R., & GRIGORENKO, E. (1997). Are cognitive styles still in style? American Psychologist, 52(7), pp.700-712.
SUSKIE, L. (2002) Theories and instruments for identifying student learning styles. Available on the Internet: http://wwwnew.towson.edu/iact/teaching/SuskieLearningStylesTheoriesand Instruments.doc/.
SWANSON, L. (1995) Learning styles: A review of the literature. The Claremont Graduate School. ERIC document Reproduction Service No. ED 387067, July.
THORNBURG, D.; PEA, R. (1991) “Synthesizing instructional technologies and educational culture: Exploring cognition and metacognition in the social studies”. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 7(2), 121-164.
VINCENT, A. & ROSS, D. (2001) “Learning style awareness: A basis for developing teaching and learning strategies”. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33(5), Summer.
WRATCHER, M., MORRISON, E., RILEY, V. & SCHEIRTON, L. (1997). Curriculum and program planning: A study guide for the core seminar. Programs for higher education: Nova Southeastern University.
WEINSTEIN, C. & MAYER, R. (1986) “The Teaching of learning strategies”. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 315-327). New York: Macmillan.
WITKIN, H.; MOORE, C.; GOODENOUGH, D.; COX, P. (1977) “Field-dependent and fieldindependent cognitive styles and their educational implications”. Review of Educational Research, 47(1), 1-64.
ZAPALSKA, A. & DABB, H. (2002) Learning styles. In International Business Teaching in Eastern and Central European Countries, The Haworth Press, Inc. Vol. 13, No. 3/4, pp.77-97.
Copyright (c) 2019 Revista Brasileira de Aprendizagem Aberta e a Distância
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Todos os artigos publicados na Revista Brasileira de Aprendizagem Aberta e a Distância (RBAAD) recebem a licença Creative Commons - Atribuição 4.0 Internacional (CC BY 4.0).
Todas as publicações subsequentes, completas ou parciais, deverão ser feitas com o reconhecimento, nas citações, da RBAAD como a editora original do artigo.